Sunday, February 24, 2019

10 Tips For Psychometric Tests, be Prepared to Apply

10 Tips For Psychometric Tests, be Prepared to Apply
Psychometric Tests

What's the Purpose of a Psychometric Test?

The purpose of psychometric and aptitude tests is to give employers insight into your cognitive capabilities and behavioural style. These tests are very useful in that they can highlight your strengths and weaknesses more so than your CV or a face-to-face interview. Most psychometric tests are given in a timed format with multiple-choice questions. These tests come in a variety of subjects and are used throughout many industries. Some of the most popular psychometric tests used by employers include numerical, verbal, and abstract reasoning assessments. Other popular pre-employment assessments include those for situational judgement and personality tests.

Our extensive online psychometric test database gives you the ability to become familiar with any type of psychometric test you could possibly imagine. The practice packs available on our website offer both a step-by-step and timed version of each test giving you the ability to learn as you go. Each of our unique PrepPacks™ provide in-depth score reports with full answer explanations to further stimulate your learning process.

How to Prepare for Your Psychometric Tests

Psychometric and aptitude tests fall into a variety of categories. You are likely to be asked to take a psychometric or aptitude test when applying for a job, or for a specific university programme. These tests will evaluate numerous skill sets and give insight into your personal strengths and weaknesses relevant to the role or programme.

If you wish to stand out during the testing process, then practising beforehand is crucial to your success. Our full-length practice tests and in-depth study guides will stimulate your learning process and boost your test-taking abilities.

10 Tips for Success in Psychometric Tests

1) Be Honest
If you try to ‘kid the system’ or answer the questions as you feel you should answer them you will come out worse than if you are 100% honest throughout. A psychometric test is designed to look for inconsistencies in the answers and are very cleverly written to indicate where it feels the answers are not wholly truthful.

2) Turn Off Your Cynical Mind
If you are cynical about the relevance and accuracy of psychometric tools turn off your opinion whilst you complete the tests. I too was a cynic when I first starting administering psychometric tools but having conducted over 2000 of them I can count on more than a few fingers those candidates who felt that the test results were not an accurate representation.

3) You Are Who You Are
The way that I coach candidates is to treat it like a photograph. If someone took your photo you wouldn’t argue that it wasn’t an accurate representation. In the same way you should approach a psychometric profile with the same attitude – you are who you are, you’re happy who you are, answer as you are! Answer honestly and you’ll be amazed at how uncannily accurate the results are.

4) The Results will be the Same in an Interview
If you’ve behaved honestly throughout the recruitment process then the psychometric tool will simply confirm the traits that you will demonstrate at interview, so quite simply there is nothing to worry about!

5) Don't Worry if the Administrator is 'Frosty'
Psychometric test administrators will normally follow a standard set of instructions in verbatim and as such can com across cold or unfriendly – don’t be perturbed by this they are simply doing their job to ensure that the tests are completed in exactly the same conditions.

6) Ensure You Understand the Instructions
In virtually all psychometric tools you are given examples to complete before the actual test. If you are in any doubt that you are completing correctly ALWAYS ask. Follow each instruction given and never be afraid of asking questions if you are not 100% certain. It is the role of an administrator to ensure that you 100% understand the instruction and will normally quite clearly detail that ‘understanding the instruction is not part of the test’ .

7) Is English Your First Language?
If English isn’t your first language let the facilitator know – many products take this factor into consideration and in many cases you can conduct the test in your ‘mother tongue’ .

8) Go with Your Intuition!
Don't panic – go with your intuition, your ‘gut feeling’ – the first answer that ‘feels right’ normally is right!

9) Don't Review Your Answers when You Finish!
Treat each question or row of questions as a separate entity – don’t be tempted to look back at previous answers and try and match your answers – an alert will be raised to indicate either inconsistency, excess stress and pressure levels or pure dishonesty. Once you finish, FINISH! Don’t be tempted to review your test answers you’ll be drawn to match the answers throughout the test.

10) Ask for Your Test Results!
Good companies and psychometric test facilitators will give you a copy of the results that can help you become more self aware.
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Saturday, February 23, 2019

14 Principle of Contributions to Management by Henri Fayol

14 Principle of Contributions to Management by Henri Fayol

Henry Fayol’s Contribution to Management # Introduction to Fayol and His Work :

Henry Fayol (1841 -1925) was a French mining engineer who turned a leading industrialist and a successful manager.

He was a mining engineer in a French mining company and rose to the position of the Chief Managing Director.

His life-long experience, in the field of managing, was reproduced in a monograph titled ‘Administration Industrial and General’. Fayol’s work gained popularity and was made known to scholars and practitioners of management; only when his monograph was published in English in the U.S.A. in 1949.

Henry Fayol Contribution to Management # A Broad Structure of Fayol’s Work :

Following is a brief comment on various facets of Fayol’s work:

(a) Fayol’s classification of business functions:

According to Henry Fayol, all the activities of a business enterprise could be divided into the following six groups:

(i) Technical activities (relating to production)

(ii) Commercial activities (relating to buying, selling or exchange).

(iii) Financial activities (relating to search for and optimum use of capital i.e. finances)

(iv) Security activities (relating to protection of the properties and personnel of the enterprise)

(v) Accounting activities (relating to a systematic recording of business transactions, including statistics also).

(vi) Managerial activities

Point of comment :

In Fayol’s view, the first five groups of activities of a business enterprise were well-known. Hence, he had concentrated his attention only on an analysis of the sixth group of activities viz., managerial.

(b) Fayol’s classification of managerial functions :

Henry Fayol classified managerial functions, as consisting of the following:

1. Planning

2. Organising

3. Commanding

4. Coordinating

5. Controlling

(c) Qualities required in managers:

Fayol mentions the following qualities required in managers; to enable them to become better and more efficient:

1. Physical

2. Mental

3. Moral

4. Education

5. Technical

6. Experience

(d) General principles of management:

By far, the most significant contribution by Fayol is the general principles of management listed by him, in his monograph titled ‘General and Industrial Administration. Based on his long managerial experience, Fayol advocates fourteen general principles of management.

14 Principles of Management of Henri Fayol

14 principles of Management ar statements that ar supported a basic truth. These principles of management function a tenet for decision-making and management actions. They are necessitated by means that of observations and analyses of events that managers encounter in observe. Henri Fayol was ready to synthesize fourteen principles of management once years of study. 14 principles of management by Henri Fayol - ToolsHero

1. Division of Work 
In observe, staff ar specialised totally different|in several|in numerous} areas and that they have different skills. Different levels of experience will be distinguished inside the data areas (from student to specialist). Personal and professional developments support this. According to Henri Fayol specialization promotes potency of the manpower and will increase productivity. In addition, the specialization of the manpower will increase their accuracy and speed. This management principle of the fourteen principles of management is applicable to each technical and social control activities.

2. Authority and Responsibility 
In order to urge things wiped out a company, management has the authority to relinquish orders to the staff. Of course with this authority comes responsibility. According to Henri Fayol, the incidental power or authority offers the management the proper to relinquish orders to the subordinates. The responsibility will be derived back from performance and it's so necessary to form agreements regarding this. In different words, authority and responsibility go along and that they ar 2 sides of identical coin.

3. Discipline 
This third principle of the fourteen principles of management is regarding obedience. It is typically a neighborhood of the core values of a mission and vision within the type of sensible conduct and respectful interactions. This management principle is crucial and is seen because the oil to form the engine of a company run swimmingly. 

4. Unity of Command 
The management principle ‘Unity of command’ implies that a private worker ought to receive orders from one manager which the worker is answerable thereto manager. If tasks and connected responsibilities ar given to the worker by quite one manager, this could result in confusion which can result in potential conflicts for workers. By exploitation this principle, the responsibility for mistakes will be established a lot of simply.

5. Unity of Direction 
This management principle of the fourteen principles of management is all regarding focus and unity. All staff deliver identical activities that may be connected to identical objectives. All activities should be dispensed by one cluster that forms a team. These activities should be represented in an exceedingly set up of action. The manager is ultimately liable for this set up and he monitors the progress of the outlined and planned activities. Focus aras are the efforts created by the staff and coordination.

6. Subordination of Individual Interest 
There ar perpetually all types of interests in a company. In order to possess a company operate well, Henri Fayol indicated that non-public interests ar subordinate to the interests of the organization (ethics). The primary focus is on the structure objectives and not on those of the individual. This applies to all or any levels of the whole organization, together with the managers. 

7. Remuneration 
Motivation and productivity ar about to each other as way because the swish running of a company thinks about. This management principle of the fourteen principles of management argues that the remuneration ought to be sufficient to stay staff impelled and productive. There ar 2 styles of remuneration particularly non-monetary (a compliment, a lot of responsibilities, credits) and financial (compensation, bonus or different money compensation). Ultimately, it is about rewarding the efforts that have been made. 

8. The Degree of Centralization 
Management and authority for decision-making method should be properly balanced in a company. This depends on the quantity and size of a company together with its hierarchy. Centralization implies the concentration of higher cognitive process authority at the highest management (executive board). Sharing of authorities for the decision-making method with lower levels (middle and lower management), is referred to as decentralization by Henri Fayol. Henri Fayol indicated that a company ought to attempt for an honest balance during this. 

9. Scalar Chain 
Hierarchy presents itself in any given organization. This varies from senior management (executive board) to very cheap levels within the organization. Henri Fayol ’s “hierarchy” management principle states that there ought to be a transparent line within the space of authority (from prime to bottom and every one managers in the slightest degree levels). This can be seen as a kind of management structure. Each worker will contact a manager or a superior in associate emergency scenario while not difficult the hierarchy. Especially, once it issues reports regarding calamities to the immediate managers/superiors.

10. Order 
According to this principle of the fourteen principles of management, staff in a company should have the proper resources at their disposal in order that they'll operate properly in a company. In addition to social order (responsibility of the managers) the work atmosphere should be safe, clean and tidy.

11. Equity 
The management principle of equity typically happens within the core values of a company. According to Henri Fayol, employees must be treated kindly and equally. Employees should be within the right place within the organization to try to to things right. Managers ought to supervise and monitor this method and that they ought to treat staff fairly and impartially. 

12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel 
This management principle of the fourteen principles of management represents preparation and managing of personnel and this could be in balance with the service that's provided from the organization. Management strives to attenuate turnover and to possess the proper workers within the right place. Focus areas like frequent modification of position and sufficient development should be managed well.

13. Initiative
Henri Fayol argued that with this management principle staff ought to be allowed to precise new ideas. This encourages interest and involvement and creates supplemental worth for the corporate. Employee initiatives ar a supply of strength for the organization in step with Henri Fayol. This encourages the staff to be concerned and interested.

14. Esprit de Corps
The management principle ‘esprit de corps’ of the 14 principles of management stands for striving for the involvement and unity of the employees. Managers are responsible for the development of morale in the workplace; individually and in the area of communication. Esprit de corps contributes to the development of the culture and creates an atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding.

In conclusion on the 14 Principles of management

The 14 principles of management can be used to manage organizations and are useful tools for forecasting, planning, process management, organization management, decision-making, coordination and control.

Although they are obvious, many of these matters are still used based on common sense in current management practices in organizations. It remains a practical list with focus areas that are based on Henri Fayol ’s research which still applies today due to a number of logical principles.

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Friday, February 22, 2019

Marketing Definition By Philip Kotler, Theory Concept

Marketing Definition By Philip Kotler - The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets.

Marketing Definition By Philip Kotler

Marketing Definition Philip Kotler

Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products of value with others.

A human need is a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction. People require food, clothing, shelter, safety, belonging, and esteem. These needs are not created by society or by marketers. They exist in the very texture of human biology and the human condition.

Wants are desires for specific satisfiers of needs. Although people’s needs are few, their wants are many. They are continually shaped and reshaped by social forces and institutions, including churches, schools, families and business corporations. People in different societies differ in the way they satisfy their needs.

Demands are wants for specific products that are backed by an ability and willingness to buy them. Companies must measure not only how many people want their product but, more importantly, how many would actually be willing and able to buy it.


A market consists of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy that need or want.


When one party is more actively seeking an exchange than the other party, we call the first party a marketer and the second party a prospect. A marketer is some one seeking one or more prospects who might engage in an exchange of values. A prospect is someone whom the marketer identifies as potentially willing and able to engage in an exchange of values.

Marketers do not create needs. Marketers influence wants. Marketers influence demand by making the product appropriate, attractive, affordable, and easily available to target consumers. They also communicate their offering to prospects. Society influences wants. People living in different societies prefer different types of food items, different types of apparel and even different types of jewellery.

A product is anything that can be offered to satisfy a need or want. Offering and solution are synonyms to the product in marketing context.

A product or offering can consist of as many as three components: physical good(s), service(s), and idea(s).

Value is the consumer’s estimate of the product’s overall capacity to satisfy his or her needs.

Marketers offer value to a consumer when the satisfaction of customer's requirements takes place at the lowest possible cost of acquisition, ownership, and use.

Marketing management

Marketing management takes place when at least one party to a potential exchange thinks about the means of achieving desired responses from other parties.

Definition of American Marketing Association

Marketing (Management) is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals.

Marketing management has the task of influencing the level, timing, and composition of demand in a way that help the organization achieve its objectives. Marketing management is essentially demand management.

Marketing managers manage demand by carrying out marketing research, planning, implementation and control.

Within marketing planning, marketers must make decisions on target markets, market positioning, product development, pricing, distribution channels, physical distribution, communication, and promotion.

Marketing work in the customer market is formally carried out by sales managers, salespeople, advertising and promotion manages, marketing researchers, customer service managers, product and brand managers, market and industry managers, and the marketing vice-president.

The Marketing Concept

The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining and satisfying the needs and wants of target markets.

The marketing concept rests on four pillars: target market, customer needs, integrated marketing, and profitability.

Target market

No company can operate in every market and satisfy every need. Nor can it always do a good job within one broad market.

- Customer needs
Marketing is about meeting needs of target markets profitably.

The key to professional marketing is to understand their customers’ real needs and meet them better than any competitor can.

Some marketers draw a distinction between responsive marketing and creative marketing. A responsive marketer finds a stated need and fills it. A creative marketer discovers latent needs (needs not stated but observed or inferred) and produces solutions that customer did not ask for but to which they enthusiastically respond.

- Integrated Marketing
When all the company’s departments work together to serve the customer’s interests, the result is integrated marketing.

Integrated marketing takes on two levels. First, the various marketing functions-sales force, advertising, product management, marketing research, and so on – must work together. Second, marketing department must be well coordinated with other company departments.

The company is doing proper marketing only when all employees appreciate their impact on customer satisfaction. To foster teamwork among all departments, the company carries out internal marketing as well as external marketing. External marketing is marketing directed at people outside the company. Internal marketing is the task of successfully hiring, training, and motivating employees who want to serve the customers well. In fact internal marketing must precede external marketing. It makes no sense to promise excellent service before the company’s staff is ready to provide excellent service.


The ultimate purpose of the marketing concept is to help organizations achieve their goals. In the case of private firms, the major goal is profit. Marketing managers have to provide value to the customer and profits to the organization. Marketing managers have to evaluate the profitability of all alternative marketing strategies and decisions and choose most profitable decisions for long-term survival and growth of the firm.

Kotler, Philip (1997), Marketing Management, 9th Ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

For Additional  Coverage on this topic in 14th Edition Visit
Philip Kotler - Keller Definition and Explanation of Marketing Management for 21st Century - 14th Edition

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